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Get the Best Lifepo4 Battery Temperature Range for You

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Publish Time: 2023-03-02

Thermometer is measuring the temperature outside

If you are a regular user of lifepo4 batteries, you are well aware of how temperature affects the performance and life of your battery.

Temperature not only changes the way electricity flows through the battery, but also disrupts the chemical reactions that occur during charge/discharge. Over time, this can drastically reduce battery efficiency if not managed properly.

In this blog post, we'll discuss some simple tips on how to minimize the effects of temperature on your lifepo4 battery for optimal performance and longevity!

 

What is The Applicable of the Lifepo4 Battery Temperature Range?

Lifepo4 batteries are designed to operate over a wide temperature range of -20°C to 60°C. Through rigorous testing, this temperature range has been proven to be safe for lifepo4 batteries, which makes lifepo4 batteries flexible for normal use in various climates.

In addition, lifepo4 batteries are less prone to thermal runaway at any temperature in this range. It is therefore ideal for applications requiring long-term reliable operation such as electric vehicles and renewable energy storage.

 

How Temperature Impacts Lifepo4 Batteries

(1) Cold Temperatures

Low temperature has an impact on the positive and negative electrodes, electrolyte and binder of lithium iron phosphate batteries.

The positive electrode of the lithium iron phosphate battery itself has relatively poor electronic conductivity, and it is easy to polarize in a low-temperature environment, thereby reducing the battery capacity.

For example, under the influence of low temperature, the intercalation speed of lithium in graphite decreases, and lithium metal is easy to precipitate on the surface of the negative electrode. During the charging process, lithium ions may not have time to intercalate into the graphite anode, thus forming lithium metal dendrites on the surface of the anode.

This reaction will consume lithium ions in the battery that can be repeatedly charged and discharged, greatly reducing the battery capacity. The precipitated lithium metal dendrites may also pierce the separator and affect the safety performance.

In addition, low temperature will also increase the viscosity of the electrolyte, and the resistance to lithium ion migration will increase accordingly. In the production process of lithium iron phosphate batteries, the adhesive is also a very critical factor, and low temperature will also have a great impact on the performance of the adhesive.

(2) Hot Temperatures

High temperature will accelerate the aging rate of lifepo4 battery.

High temperatures can greatly shorten the lifecycle and flexibility of lifepo4 batteries, as they are more prone to accelerated aging in warm weather conditions.

This accelerated aging is caused by chemical reactions in the battery cells that occur faster when exposed to higher temperatures, resulting in an overall decrease in the battery's life cycle, capacity and performance levels. As shown below:

  1. Single charge and discharge curve

Single charge and discharge curve

When exposed to high temperatures, lifepo4 batteries experience a significant voltage drop, reducing their capacity and resulting in shorter run times.

  1. The high temperature cycle completed 1100cyc, and the capacity retention rate was 73.8%.

Changes in the number of cycles and capacity of the battery at high temperature

High ambient temperature can also lead to corrosion of the internal parts of the lifepo4 battery, resulting in life-shortening issues such as capacity loss and reduced efficiency.

 

Optimal Temperature of Lifepo4 in Different Scenarios

(1) Lifepo4 battery storage

For short-term storage, keep items within a temperature range of -20 to +60°C (4 to 140°F).

If you expect to keep them for more than a month, reduce the range as follows:

Up to three months (-10 to +35°C/14–95°F)

more than three (+15–35°C / 59–95 °F).

(2) Lifepo4 battery charge and discharge

To ensure the lifepo4 battery operates at peak performance, it is important to keep in mind the optimum temperature range for charging and discharging.

The optimum temperature range for charging is 10°C to 45°C, and the optimum temperature range for discharge is -10°C to 60°C.

Lifepo4 battery temperature range impact on capacity chart

From the figure above, we can see that the best lifepo4 operating temperature is 20°C-30°C.

Any temperature outside of these ranges may reduce performance or even cause permanent damage to the lifepo4 battery.

 

Precautions for Using Lifepo4 Battery in Winter

  1. Before using and charging, please pay attention to the local temperature and the battery indicator. It is not recommended to charge the battery when the temperature is lower than 0°C, and it cannot be discharged when the battery temperature is lower than minus 20°C.
  2. When the internal temperature of the battery reaches nearly 0°C or below 0°C, the battery capacity will decrease by 10-40%, which is a normal phenomenon, and the capacity will recover after the temperature rises by 10°C.
  3. When the temperature of the battery is usually higher than 5°C, the battery must be charged if the power is lower than 10%, and it must be charged when the battery is near 0°C or below 0°C and the power is lower than 25%.
  4. When the battery temperature is lower than 0°C in winter, if the battery does not have a heating function, put the battery in a warm storage, and charge it after the battery temperature rises above 5°C.Battery pack with heating function, please pay attention to whether the charger is working when charging.
  5. Please start using it as soon as possible after it is fully charged, and do not leave it alone for a long time after it is fully charged.
  6. When winter comes, the lifepo4 battery will not be used for a long time. It is necessary to fully charge the battery to 80%-90%, and ensure that all electrical equipment in the car is turned off, and the lifepo4 battery master switch is turned off.
  7. Please pay attention to the maintenance of the lifepo4 battery, develop good usage habits, activate the battery once every one to two months by first discharging and then fully charging, and check the battery condition regularly.
  8. Energy storage battery, such as low-voltage protection of the battery, please press the reset button for 5 seconds to activate or use a matching low-current DC charger to activate

Heavy snow covered the red cabin and surrounding vegetation

 

Precautions for Using Lifepo4 at High Temperature

  1. Do not charge at high temperatures. Lithium iron phosphate batteries run in high-temperature seasons, and there will be problems of overcharging. The increase in temperature will increase the activity of each active material, and the reaction will be sufficiently violent, resulting in a fast reaction speed during charging, a large charging current and high temperature, and a low charging voltage required during charging.
  2. Do not expose to the sun, because the weather is relatively hot, and the battery is always heating up during the use of the device. Although the ignition point of the lifepo4 battery is as high as 800°C, too high a temperature will still cause irreversible damage to the battery life. Therefore, we must pay attention to the ventilation and heat dissipation of the battery, and avoid exposing the battery to the sun.
  3. Prevent the battery from entering water. If the battery enters water, it may directly lead to a short circuit between the positive and negative terminals. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly check whether the appearance of the battery is damaged, and if necessary, seek the help of a professional to repair it.
  4. Charge in a safe place, try to place the battery in a safe area specially provided for charging, and cut off the power in time after charging.
  5. Avoid battery over-discharge, lifepo4 batteries are not allowed to be stored without electricity.If the lifepo4 battery is not planned to be used in a short period of time, please charge the battery to more than 50% for storage, and perform a charge-discharge cycle every 3-6 months.

Cows walk on a summer meadow with hot air balloons in the sky

 

Summarize

In general, lifepo4 batteries need to be kept within a certain temperature range (-20℃~60℃) to optimize performance and maximize service life.

Never charge in high temperatures (over 45°C) or freezing temperatures (0°C). Try to ensure that the battery works or stores in a cool, dry and ventilated environment.

 

Lifepo4 batteries are popular with many users for their longer life cycle, higher energy density and extensive safety features.

However, the low-temperature characteristics of lithium iron phosphate batteries are determined by their material properties and are difficult to change.

Many experiments have proved that the low-temperature performance of lithium batteries of different materials is also different, and the most popular lithium iron phosphate battery has no outstanding advantages in low-temperature performance.

Harveypower's lifepo4 battery pack is committed to creating a higher-performance home energy storage battery. The discharge capacity of the battery is 85% of the maximum capacity at -10°C, and the discharge capacity can reach 95% at 55°C.

 

More FAQ

(1) Can the lifepo4 battery be charged below 0°?

No, under the influence of low temperature, metal lithium is easy to precipitate on the surface of the negative electrode, which will greatly reduce the battery capacity.

And the precipitated metal lithium dendrites may also pierce the separator, affecting the safety performance.

(2) Can you store 100% LiFePO4?

No, lifepo4 battery storage should be kept at a temperature between 15°C and 25°C and at a charge level of 50-60%.

(3) Will the lifepo4 battery overheat?

While it is possible for a lifepo4 battery to overheat, it is significantly less likely than other types of lithium-ion batteries due to the stability of its chemistry.

Moreover, the lifepo4 battery has a high ignition point and will not overheat easily.

(4) Will lifepo4 batteries catch fire?

No, lifepo4 batteries are considered to be one of the safest forms of batteries on the market today, with an ignition point as high as 800°C, and they did not catch fire even in the puncture test.

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